We’ve talked about Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) before, and today we wanted to talk about dysphagia and aspiration, two things that can be associated with GERD.
Dysphagia refers to the inability of food and/or liquids to pass easily from the mouth, into the throat, through the esophagus and into to the stomach during the process of swallowing. In more simple terms, it means “difficulty swallowing.” Many medical conditions can cause dysphagia but in children, it is usually due to physical malformations, neurological conditions or digestive problems like GERD.
How can GERD cause dysphagia?
GERD is a condition where the muscles at the end of the esophagus do not close properly and allow stomach contents to leak back into the esophagus. The acidity of stomach contents can cause inflammation in the esophagus (esophagitis) and may lead to ulcers and scaring. The scarring can result in narrowing of the esophagus which may make swallowing more difficult. Patients with dysphagia may experience pain in the throat or chest, heartburn, regurgitation or the feeling that they have something stuck in their throat or chest.
Both GERD and dysphagia are risk factors for aspiration, where foreign substances (food, liquid and/or stomach contents) are inhaled into the lungs. GERD can cause stomach contents to flow back into the esophagus and dysphagia can cause food and/or liquid to remain in the esophagus after swallowing. If these substances are inhaled and move into the lungs, it can lead to serious respiratory problems, such as aspiration pneumonia.
Silent aspiration describes aspiration without any obvious signs of swallowing difficulty, such as coughing or breathing difficulty. Silent aspiration is especially common among children with dysphagia. In fact, an estimated 94% of children with dysphagia experience silent aspiration. This form can be especially dangerous because caregivers may not know that aspiration is occurring until the child becomes sick.
Because GERD and dysphagia are risk factors for aspiration and because children are more likely than adults to experience silent aspiration, you may want to do a swallow study if your child has these conditions to rule out aspiration. If it is detected, don’t worry! There are various ways to manage it so that respiratory problems don’t develop, such as altering the thickness of your child’s food and drinks.
Our previous post focused on GERD as it relates to dysphagia and silent aspiration but in this post, I want to mention Eosinophilic Esophagitis (EoE), which is another condition that is linked to dysphagia and silent aspiration. Patients with EoE may have feeding problems, vomiting, dysphagia, abdominal pain or food impaction. In fact, a recent study urged professionals to screen for EoE when patients present with dysphagia. If your child has been diagnosed with EoE, you may want to discuss the possibility of silent aspiration with your health care provider since dysphagia is a risk factor for aspiration. Symptoms of EoE are often controlled by diet so dietary management may be sufficient to control dysphagia and the risk for silent aspiration. Feeding therapy and food thickeners may be considered as well.
Have any of your children with GERD or EE experienced dysphagia? How do you manage the dysphagia and the risk for silent aspiration?
 Dysphagia. Children’s Hospital Boston:
 Palmer & Drennan et al. Evaluation and Treatment of Swallowing Impairments. Am Fam Physician 2000;61:2453-62
 Lee J, Blain S, Casas M, Kenny D, Berall G, Chau T. A radial basis classifier for the automatic detection of aspiration in children with dysphagia. J Neuroeng Rehabil. 2006 Jul 17;3:14.