Pet Allergies: The Science of allergies is crazy. Sometimes we hear in the news about researchers looking at things that seem completely off-the-wall. On the other hand, a lot of scientists and researchers look at things that can have meaningful impacts on our lives. Sometimes, the research can even be practical for everyday folks like us.
Today, I’ll share some interesting research related to pets, the environment and allergic conditions. I find it interesting not just because I love science, but also because it can be helpful. Sure, I geek out over research sometimes, but when it’s practical research, everybody wins. The questions at hand: can owning pets or living on a farm actually provide a BENEFIT when it comes to allergic conditions?
The state of affairs
- Lots of people are allergic to pets. Some of my friends have allergies to cats, ranging from mild (sneezing) to severe (difficulty breathing). I have other friends who have allergies to dogs. I even know people who seem to be allergic to just about any animal with fur.
- Many children who have one allergic condition also have one or several other allergic conditions. For example, it’s not uncommon for an infant with a cow milk allergy to develop allergies to other foods. There are also children who have atopic dermatitis as well as asthma. Any number of combinations is possible, and allergies to animals are in the mix too.
- We used to think that avoiding things that we might become allergic to is the best way to prevent actually BECOMING allergic to that thing. For years, parents were cautioned to avoid introducing peanut into babies’ diets until they were several years old. (That advice has changed – but that’s a subject for another post!)
With all this in mind, it seemed logical that a child with one allergic condition might do well to avoid things that might become future allergens. Why not? If my child already has food allergies, then maybe they’re likely to also become allergic to animals. Why take the chance with a new pet?
But in science, a theory is just a theory. The scientists and researchers among us don’t assume these are facts. We should be grateful that, just because an idea is logical, our scientist friends test those theories to see if they hold up! When they test a theory they come up with a hypothesis – something they expect will be true but that they want to test.
In fact, one theory that you may have heard of is the ‘Hygiene hypothesis.’ This is based on the idea that, in western societies like North America, our environments (home, school, work, the kitchen counter) are very clean. So clean – or hygienic – that our immune system doesn’t develop normally. The hypothesis is that too much “clean” may contribute to the increased rates of allergic conditions. We’re beginning to realize that some exposure to “dirty” may be good, especially at key windows of time when exposure to something may help LESSEN the risk of later allergy.
The latest science on pets, farms, and allergies
With all that in mind, scientists have tested several hypotheses related to the environment an infant is raised in. One is growing up in a household with pets, and the effect it has on the likelihood of developing certain allergic conditions. We wrote on this topic already. As an update, here’s some of the latest research that’s been shared in recent years:
- A study found that infants who live in a house with a dog for their first year of life may be less likely to develop eczema and other allergies, depending on a few factors. Read a summary of the research here.
- Researchers looked at data from the entire nation of Sweden. They found that having a dog in the first year of an infant’s life was associated with a lower likelihood of asthma in children beyond 3-6 years old (but not younger). Growing up on a farm with animals was also associated with a lower likelihood of asthma through age 6. Read a summary of this research here.
- Maybe farms help? Researchers in Europe looked at a large group of children, comparing them based on how rural their environment was. The children who grew up closer to more forest and agricultural land were less likely to develop environmental allergies. The researchers think the microbes in the environment can be key – read more here.
So what’s the catch about pet allergies?
Well, not everyone is able to pick up and move to a farm! Second, pet ownership is also a big decision. Those are obvious considerations, besides per allergies.
Also, research is messy and often leads to more questions than answers. First, not all research that’s been conducted in this topic has come to the same conclusions – some of the results are contradictory. And sometimes you find something you don’t expect. For example, researchers in Finland found that growing up in a household with a dog or cat may be slightly MORE likely to lead to an allergy to that animal than growing up in a house without one…!
With that in mind, the best thing to do may be to talk to your little one’s pediatrician and/or allergist. Ask their take on pets and allergic conditions. They often have a good understanding of the science, including how best to interpret the research. They can offer some guidance or at least help you make an informed decision.
One final note: keep in mind that there really is no such thing as a hypoallergenic dog breed! You can certainly ask your allergist for more information, but don’t believe the hype if you see a breeder selling “hypoallergenic” dogs.
How do I come across such interesting topics? As a member of the Medical and Scientific Affairs team at Nutricia I get to attend major conferences, such as the annual meeting for the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (AAAAI). I always discover some really interesting research there!